Merlot is a high quality wine grape variety coming from France. Main variety for the provinces of Saint-Emilion and Pomerol in the region of Bordeaux, France. It is also spread in Italy and many other wine countries, including Bulgaria. In Bulgaria it is mainly distributed in the Southern wine region. He prefers light but rich soils on slopes. Sometimes he is prone to riot. The cluster is medium-sized, cylindrical-conical, semi-compact. Grain – small, spherical, dark blue, with plenty of pungency. The tile is thin and tough. The meat is juicy, with a harmonious taste. Its wines are characterized by intense red color, fullness, harmony of taste and rich bouquet. The mature wines are characterized by a powerful complex aroma that reveals the nuances of oak, candied fruits, smoke and truffles.
Cabernet Sauvignon is the most popular red wine grape variety in the world, originating in the Bordeaux region of France. According to modern DNA analyzes, it was obtained by crossing the varieties of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc. Except in France, it is also distributed in Italy, Spain, Great Britain, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, USA, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Chile, Australia , New Zealand, Japan, South Africa and others. It grows in all wine-growing countries and occupies about 10% of the world’s areas with wine plantations. In Bulgaria, Cabernet Sauvignon ranks first among varieties of red wine and is regionally grown, growing mainly in the North, South and Southwestern wine-growing regions. Average ripening variety: the grapes ripen in the first half of September. It has strong growth, high fertility and medium yield. The yield varies from 726 to 1540 kg / ha depending on variations and clones. It develops well on hills, light sandy and humus-carbonate soils. Relatively resistant to drought, cold and rot. The cluster is small (50-100 years), cylindrical-conical, sometimes winged, semi-dormant or loose. Grains are small (0.8-1.2 years), spherical, blue-black, with abundant wax. The skin is thick and tough. The meat is juicy, with a harmonious taste, with colorless juice. It is used for the preparation of high quality red varieties and blended wines, champagne wines and juices. The variety wines are rich in dark red color, good density and intense aroma of small red fruits – black currant, blackberry and mulberry. When aged in oak barrels they develop a rich, complex flavor, with shades of spices, oak, smoke, chocolate and cinnamon.
Early Melnik vine or Melnik 55 is a hybrid wine grape variety, a cross of the Shiroka Melnishka vine with mixed pollen of the Durif, Jurasson and Waldigie varieties. It is spread only in the region of Sandanski and Katuntsi. In 2005, From Agrobioinstitut Sofia was conducted a research using DNA markers to establish parental varieties for crosses. The study pointed to a cross between the Broad Melnik Vine and Valdige. Suitable for the variety are humus-carbonate soils or sandy loam, warmer soils. Relatively stable variety of low winter temperatures. The vines are sensitive to manna and odium. Grapes are resistant to gray rot. The variety is medium-ripened. The grapes ripen on September 20-25. The vines are very growing, with very good fertility and yield. The yield is about 1500 kg / ha. The bunch is medium-sized, cylindrical-conical or winged with one wing, half-planted. The grain is medium-sized, oval, juicy. The cistern is thick, dark blue, with dots. Variety wines are made with a rich ruby color, rich aroma and aging potential.
Sangiovese is an old red wine grape variety, originating in the region of Tuscany, Italy, known since the time of the Roman Empire. Its name derives from the Latin sanguis jovis, which means “the blood of Jupiter”. Vines are characterized by medium growth and yielding average yields. The variety has many branches that differ in grape and grain sizes, maturation, sugar and flavor. The cluster is tall to medium-sized, winged, dense to compact. The grains are medium in size, short and oval, dark-black, covered with wax. Sangiovese is used in many reputed Italian wines, sometimes on its own, sometimes combined with three or four other varieties. The varietal wines are spicy, with blue plum and virgin flavors, with high acidity, medium to high tannins and alcohol levels in average values.
Marselan is a red French wine grape variety, which is a cross between Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache. It was first raised in 1961 near the French town of Marseillan. The clusters are large but small-grained. Hence the yield of grape juice is small. Marselan allows you to obtain dyed wines, typical and of great quality. They are fragrant, with a structured body mature to mature. Marselan requires a short pruning. For its cultivation a wire structure is required to keep its long shoots. Marsellan is slightly sensitive to gray rot.
Nebbiolo is an old red wine grape variety, originating in the Piedmont region of Italy, known since the time of the Roman Empire. Its name derives from the Latin nobile, ie. Noble, but the name is more likely to come from “nebbia” (fog), which is a common occurrence in Piedmont in October, when it is harvest time. Apart from Italy, the variety is also distributed in the USA, Argentina, Mexico and Australia. Late ripening variety. Vines have average growth. The variety is demanding for soil and climatic conditions – the best results are given to limestone soils on land with south and southwest exposure. The cluster is medium, cylindrical-conical, medium density. The grains are medium, rounded, with violet color. The wines contain many tannins, acids and pigments, and with long aging in barrels or bottles (sometimes decades) the wine becomes extraordinary to taste and aroma.
Pinot noir (Pinot noir) is an old red wine grape variety from Burgundy and Champagne-Ardennes, France. Early ripening variety. Pinot Noir is one of the few red varieties that mature early enough. The vines have average growth, good fertility and average yield. The cluster is small to medium, cylindrical, concise. Depending on the location, the grapes are used to produce high-quality red wines and champagne wines. The wines of this noble variety are characterized by medium intensive to intense color and with scents of red, sometimes black berries, mushrooms and forest noise.
Rubin is a hybrid red wine grape variety, selected at the end of the 1940s at the Institute of Vine and Wine Production – Pleven, by crossing the Nebbiolo and Syra variety. Approved as a new variety from the State Variety Commission. Average ripening variety: Rises in the first half of September. It develops well on hilly terrains with deep enough, medium-rich soils. It has strong growth, good fertility and medium yield. The cluster is medium-sized, conical, semi-compact to compact, with one or two wings. It is used for high quality table, semi-sweet and sweet sorts. They are characterized by deep dark red color, extraction and a good harmonious taste with blue, blackberry and violet shades. Wines have the potential for aging.
Tamianka – wine grape variety originating in the lands of the Middle East – Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Iran and others.
Meeting under different names in most wine countries. In Bulgaria occupies large areas, and in France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Hungary, the countries of former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, USA.
It is also known by the names: Violet (Vratsa), Muscat de Frontignan, Muskat blanc a petits grains, Muskat roze a petits grains (France), Muscato di Canelli (Italy), Tamaioasa (Romania), Tamyanika (Serbia), Muscat belыy ( the former USSR).
Tamianka averaged earliest grape variety. Ripens in the first half of September. After ripening grapes raisined. It grows well on light humus-carbonate, sandy clay or gravel soils on hilly terrain ventilated with good sunshine. The vines have an average growth, high fertility and the average yield. The variety is attacked by botrytis and particularly from vine mite. Low resistant to low winter temperatures. The average yield per hectare is about 800 – 1000 kg.
The bunch is a medium-sized (120-160 gr.) Cylindrical to cylindrical-conical, semi-compressed to compressed. The berries are medium, spherical. The skin is thick,rusty yellow or golden yellow with tan with distinctive small black dots. The meat is juicy, harmonious taste and strong incense flavor.
Grapes accumulates many sugar – 20-26%, in titratable acidity 6-8 g / kub.dm. Raisined and the accumulation of high sugar content makes the grapes suitable for obtaining high-quality semi-dry and sweet wines, which are characterized by deep gold color, density and fine muscat-incense flavor. Classic grape variety for getting quality dessert wines.
It refers to Western European grape varieties, and Spain is considered to be its homeland. The strength of the vine growth is high. The leaves are medium or large, five-pointed. The clusters are pyramidal and medium-sized. Grains are medium sized, round, greenish-yellow. Yield of grapes depends on the conditions, but is usually high. Refers to varieties with late ripening. Pretty resistant to diseases. The variety is demanding for heat and is poorly winterproof. Semi-aromatic variety. Good ratio of sweetness and acidity. The making of dessert and table wines is used.
Viognier (in French: Viognier) is a white wine grape variety, spread mostly on the right bank of the Rhone River south of Wien, France. Grapes ripen at the end of September. The bunches are medium sized, conical, winged and dense. The grains are small, slightly elliptical, white, with a greenish tinge. It is used alone to make a dry white wine with a floral aroma and a memorable flavor, which, however, has no potential for aging and it is advisable to drink young. It can be combined with other varieties to give the aroma of the wine.
Misanet Sandanski is a white wine grape variety. Selected in Bulgaria by the crossing of the varieties Shiroka Melnishka vine, Tamianka and Cabernet Sauvignon, established as a new variety in 1979. The vines are characterized by strong growth. Technological maturity of the grapes occurs in the second ten-day period of September. The cluster is medium sized, cylindrical. The grains are medium-sized, oval. The consistency is juicy, with a strong musk aroma. The grape is high in sugar, with a relatively high acidity, which is of great importance for the preparation of high-quality dessert and sweet-tasting mousse wines, characterized by fullness and piqueness.